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        > 在線聽力 > 有聲讀物 > 世界名著 > 譯林版·如何享受人生,享受工作 >  第1課

        雙語《如何享受人生,享受工作》 第一章 是什么讓你疲憊,如何應對疲憊

        所屬教程:譯林版·如何享受人生,享受工作

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        qinting

        2022年06月15日

        手機版
        掃描二維碼方便學習和分享

        Chapter 1 What Makes You Tired—and What You Can Do about It

        Here is an astounding and significant fact: Mental work alone can't make you tired. Sounds absurd. But a few years ago, scientists tried to find out how long the human brain could labour without reaching“a diminished capacity for work”, the scientific definition of fatigue. To the amazement of these scientists, they discovered that blood passing through the brain, when it is active, shows no fatigue at all! If you took blood from the veins of a day labourer while he was working, you would find it full of“fatigue toxins”and fatigue products. But if you took a drop of blood from the brain of an Albert Einstein, it would show no fatigue toxins whatever at the end of the day.

        So far as the brain is concerned, it can work“as well and as swiftly at the end of eight or even twelve hours of effort as at the beginning”. The brain is utterly tireless.... So what makes you tired? Psychiatrists declare that most of our fatigue derives from our mental and emotional attitudes. One of England's most distinguished psychiatrists, J. A. Hadfield, says in his book The Psychology of Power:“the greater part of the fatigue from which we suffer is of mental origin; in fact exhaustion of purely physical origin is rare.”

        One of America's most distinguished psychiatrists, Dr. A. A. Brill, goes even further. He declares:“One hundred percent of the fatigue of the sedentary worker in good health is due to psychological factors, by which we mean emotional factors.”

        What kinds of emotional factors tire the sedentary (or sitting) worker? Joy? Contentment? No! Never! Boredom, resentment, a feeling of not being appreciated, a feeling of futility, hurry, anxiety, worry—those are the emotional factors that exhaust the sitting worker, make him susceptible to colds, reduce his output, and send him home with a nervous headache. Yes, we get tired because our emotions produce nervous tensions in the body.

        The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company pointed that out in a leaflet on fatigue:“Hard work by itself,”says this great life-insurance company,“seldom causes fatigue which cannot be cured by a good sleep or rest. ...Worry, tenseness, and emotional upsets are three of the biggest causes of fatigue. Often they are to blame when physical or mental work seems to be the cause. ... Remember that a tense muscle is a working muscle. Ease up! Save energy for important duties.”

        Stop now, right where you are, and give yourself a check-up. As you read these lines, are you scowling at the book? Do you feel a strain between the eyes? Are you sitting relaxed in your chair? Or are you hunching up your shoulders? Are the muscles of your face tense? Unless your entire body is as limp and relaxed as an old rag doll, you are at this very moment producing nervous tensions and muscular tensions. You are producing nervous tensions and nervous fatigue!

        Why do we produce these unnecessary tensions in doing mental work? Josselyn says:“I find that the chief obstacle ... is the almost universal belief that hard work requires a feeling of effort, else it is not well done.”So we scowl when we concentrate. We hunch up our shoulders. We call on our muscles to make the motion of effort, which in no way assists our brain in its work.

        Here is an astonishing and tragic truth: millions of people who wouldn't dream of wasting dollars go right on wasting and squandering their energy with the recklessness of seven drunken sailors in Singapore.

        What is the answer to this nervous fatigue? Relax! Relax! Relax! Learn to relax while you are doing your work!

        Easy? No. You will probably have to reverse the habits of a lifetime. But it is worth the effort, for it may revolutionise your life! William James said, in his essay The Gospel of Relaxation:“The American over-tension and jerkiness and breathlessness and intensity and agony of expression ... are bad habits, nothing more or less.”Tension is a habit. Relaxing is a habit. And bad habits can be broken, good habits formed.

        How do you relax? Do you start with your mind, or do you start with your nerves? You don't start with either. You always begin to relax with your muscles!

        Let's give it a try. To show how it is done, suppose we start with your eyes. Read this paragraph through, and when you've reached the end, lean back, close your eyes, and say to your eyes silently:“Let go. Let go. Stop straining, stop frowning. Let go. Let go.”Repeat that over and over very slowly for a minute. ...

        Didn't you notice that after a few seconds the muscles of the eyes began to obey? Didn't you feel as though some hand had wiped away the tension? Well, incredible as it seems, you have sampled in that one minute the whole key and secret to the art of relaxing. You can do the same thing with the jaw, with the muscles of the face, with the neck, with the shoulders, the whole of the body. But the most important organ of all is the eye. Dr. Edmund Jacobson of the University of Chicago has gone so far as to say that if you can completely relax the muscles of the eyes, you can forget all your troubles! The reason the eyes are so important in relieving nervous tension is that they burn up one-fourth of all the nervous energies consumed by the body. That is also why so many people with perfectly sound vision suffer from“eyestrain”. They are tensing the eyes.

        Vicki Baum, the famous novelist, says that when she was a child, she met an old man who taught her one of the most important lessons she ever learned. She had fallen down and cut her knees and hurt her wrist. The old man picked her up; he had once been a circus clown; and, as he brushed her off, he said:“The reason you injured yourself was because you don't know how to relax. You have to pretend you are as limp as a sock, as an old crumpled sock. Come, I'll show you how to do it.”

        That old man taught Vicki Baum and the other children how to fall, how to do flip-flops, and how to turn somersaults. And always he insisted:“Think of yourself as an old crumpled sock. Then you've got to relax!”

        You can relax in odd moments, almost anywhere you are. Only don't make an effort to relax. Relaxation is the absence of all tension and effort. Think ease and relaxation. Begin by thinking relaxation of the muscles of your eyes and your face, saying over and over:“Let go... let go... let go and relax.”Feel the energy flowing out of your facial muscles to the centre of your body. Think of yourself as free from tension as a baby.

        That is what Galli-Curci, the great soprano, used to do. Helen Jepson told me that she used to see Galli-Curci before a performance, sitting in a chair with all her muscles relaxed and her lower jaw so limp it actually sagged. An excellent practice—it kept her from becoming too nervous before her stage entrance; it prevented fatigue.

        Here are five suggestions that will help you learn to relax:

        1. Read one of the best books ever written on this subject: Release from Nervous Tension, by Dr. David Harold Fink.

        2. Relax in odd moments. Let your body go limp like an old sock. I keep an old, maroon-coloured sock on my desk as I work— keep it there as a reminder of how limp I ought to be. If you haven't got a sock, a cat will do. Did you ever pick up a kitten sleeping in the sunshine? If so, both ends sagged like a wet newspaper. Even the yogis in India say that if you want to master the art of relaxation, study the cat. I never saw a tired cat, a cat with a nervous breakdown, or a cat suffering from insomnia, worry, or stomach ulcers. You will probably avoid these disasters if you learn to relax as the cat does.

        3. Work, as much as possible, in a comfortable position. Remember that tensions in the body produce aching shoulders and nervous fatigue.

        4. Check yourself four or five times a day, and say to yourself:“Am I making my work harder than it actually is? Am I using muscles that have nothing to do with the work I am doing?”This will help you form the habit of relaxing, and as Dr. David Harold Fink says:“Among those who know psychology best, it is habits two to one.”

        5. Test yourself again at the end of the day, by asking yourself:“Just how tired am I? If I am tired, it is not because of the mental work I have done but because of the way I have done it.”“I measure my accomplishments,”says Daniel W. Josselyn,“not by how tired I am at the end of the day, but how tired I am not.”He says:“When I feel particularly tired at the end of the day, or when irritability proves that my nerves are tired, I know beyond question that it has been an inefficient day both as to quantity and quality.”If every business man would learn that same lesson, the death rate from“hypertension”diseases would drop overnight. And we would stop filling up our sanatoriums and asylums with men who have been broken by fatigue and worry.

        第一章 是什么讓你疲憊,如何應對疲憊

        這里有個重要而驚人的事實:單純地進行腦力勞動并不會使你疲憊。這聽起來似乎很荒唐,不過幾年前科學家曾試圖了解人類大腦工作多久后會“降低工作效率”——疲憊的定義??茖W家們驚訝地發現,大腦在持續活動時,經過大腦的血液絲毫沒有留下疲憊的痕跡!如果你從體力勞動者的動脈中抽取一滴血液,你會發現其中充滿了“疲勞毒素”和其他因疲勞產生的物質。但如果你從愛因斯坦的動脈中抽取一滴血,則不會發現任何疲勞毒素。

        目前看來,大腦在工作八小時甚至十二個小時后依然如新。大腦的耐疲勞性無與倫比……那么究竟是什么讓你疲憊呢?

        精神病學家宣稱,大多數疲勞來自我們的精神狀態和情緒。英國最顯赫的精神病學家A.A.布里爾博士的觀點更絕對:“百分之百腦力勞動者的疲勞都來自精神因素,也就是情緒?!?/p>

        那么,何種情緒因素會使腦力勞動者感到疲憊呢?愉悅?滿足?不!絕不是!感覺無聊、憤恨、不被賞識、徒勞、匆忙、焦慮才是使人感到疲憊的情緒因素,這些情緒還會使人易患感冒,效率降低,因頭痛而不得不提早下班。沒錯,壞情緒使身體緊張,因此我們才會疲憊不堪。

        大都會人壽保險公司在一張宣傳畫上指出:“努力工作這件事本身所制造的疲憊,如果可以睡個好覺或是好好休息,就能得到大大的緩解。只有憂慮、緊張和不良情緒才是造成疲憊的三大原因。往往在人們歸罪于體力和腦力勞動時,事實上,這些因素才是罪魁禍首。請記住,緊張的肌肉便是工作著的肌肉。學會放松些!把精力留給重要的任務?!?/p>

        現在請停下來做一下自我檢查。當你閱讀這幾行文字時,你是否皺著眉頭?你的雙目之間是否是緊繃的?你感覺自己的坐姿放松嗎?你的肩膀是否聳起?你臉上的肌肉緊張嗎?如果你的整個身體不像舊娃娃一樣松弛,那么此時此刻你正在制造著神經和肌肉的緊張,也就意味著你制造著神經和肌肉的疲勞!

        為何在進行腦力工作時會產生不必要的緊張呢?丹尼爾·W.喬斯林說過:“我發現最主要的原因是一種幾乎普遍存在的意識,即認為努力工作需要賣力,否則這件事就做不好?!彼晕覀冊诰劬珪駮r會不由自主地緊鎖眉頭、聳起肩膀。我們命令肌肉做出努力的姿態——而這并不會幫助大腦進行工作。

        精神疲勞的解藥是什么?放松!放松!放松!一定要記住,學會在工作時放松!

        這聽起來似乎很容易,但事實上很難。因為你可能需要改變一輩子養成的習慣,但努力是值得的——它有可能給你的人生帶來一場革命!威廉·詹姆斯在《放松寶典》一文中說過:“美國人的過度緊張、躁動、急促以及表達方式的夸張和強烈,都只不過是壞習慣而已?!本o張是一種習慣,放松也是一種習慣。而我們可以改正壞習慣,養成好習慣。

        怎樣才能放松呢?從心理開始還是從神經開始?都不是。要記住,永遠先從肌肉開始!

        讓我們來試試吧。讓我們先從眼睛開始,展示如何放松。請通讀此段,當你讀到此段結尾時,后背向后倚,閉上眼睛,默默對自己說:放松,放松,不要緊張,不要皺眉……放松,放松……慢慢地重復一分鐘。

        你是否察覺眼部的肌肉在幾秒鐘后開始聽話了?是否感覺到有雙無形的手撫走了緊張?就是如此神奇,你在一分鐘內已經嘗試了放松藝術的全部訣竅和秘密。你也可以用同樣的方法放松你的下巴、臉頰、脖子、肩膀以及全身,但最關鍵的器官還是眼睛。芝加哥大學的埃德蒙·雅各布森博士甚至說過,如果能徹底放松眼部肌肉,你就能忘掉所有煩惱!眼睛之所以對于緩解神經緊張發揮著如此重要的作用,是因為它們占用了身體精神能量總消耗的四分之一。這也是為什么視力完美的人也會出現眼部疲勞的現象,都是眼部的緊張造成的。

        著名小說家維姬·鮑姆說,她小時候遇到了一位老人,并從他那里學到了最重要的一課。有一次,她摔倒了,膝蓋和手腕都受了傷,這時老人過來把她扶了起來。這位老人曾經在馬戲團演過小丑,他一邊拍去她身上的塵土一邊說:“你受傷是因為你不懂如何放松自己。你得想象著自己就像只軟塌塌的襪子,又柔弱又軟和。來吧,讓我教給你如何做?!?/p>

        后來,那位老人還教給維姬·鮑姆和其他的小孩們如何奔跑、如何翻跟斗。他總是反復強調:“想象著自己柔軟得像只皺巴巴的舊襪子,自然就可以放松了!”

        你可以在任何奇怪的場合進行放松,只要你不刻意地、夸張地去放松。放松意味著抹去一切緊張和壓迫,感受從容與自在。從想象眼睛與臉部的肌肉開始學習放松。反復對自己說:放松……放松……放松……感受能量從臉部肌肉流向身體中心,想象著自己像嬰兒一樣沒有絲毫的緊張感。

        偉大的女高音歌唱家嘉麗·庫契就是這樣做的。海倫·杰普森告訴我,她常??吹郊嘻悺炱踉谘莩銮白谝巫永?,慢慢放松臉部肌肉,她的下巴放松得簡直就像要墜下來了一樣。這是個很好的習慣,這樣會使她在上臺前避免過于緊張、防止疲勞。

        下面是幫助你放松的四個建議:

        1.隨時隨地放松。盡量讓你的身體像舊襪子一樣松弛。我在辦公桌上放了一只褐紅色的襪子,提醒著自己應該如此松弛。如果你沒有襪子,一只貓也行。你是否曾經抱起過在陽光下睡覺的貓?放松就是貓那種像濕報紙一樣耷下來、軟綿綿的感覺。就連印度的瑜伽修行者都說過,若想掌握放松的藝術就要研究貓。我從來沒見過疲憊、神經崩潰或者是失眠、憂慮、得胃潰瘍的貓。你如果能學會像貓一樣放松,那么或許也能避免被這些癥狀所困擾。

        2.工作時盡可能地選用舒服的姿勢。記住,身體上的緊張會導致肩膀疼痛和神經疲勞。

        3.每天自我檢查四五次,問自己:“我是否努力過頭了?我是否在用與工作無關的肌肉?”這會幫助你養成放松的習慣。就如大衛·哈羅德·芬克博士所說:“最懂心理學的人都知道這是事半功倍的習慣?!?/p>

        4.一天結束前再做一次自我檢查,反省自己:“我究竟有多累?如果感覺累,那不是因為腦力勞動本身,而是我進行勞動的方式不對?!钡つ釥枴.喬斯林說:“我不以每天的疲勞程度來衡量自己的成就,而是以輕松的程度來衡量。一天下來如果我感覺特別疲勞,我便知道,這一天的工作在數量和質量上毫無疑問都是低效的?!比绻绹乃猩虡I人士都懂得這個道理,那么高血壓死亡率一定會一夜間驟減的,我們的療養所和精神病院也不會出現因疲勞和焦慮而崩潰的病人們了。

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